A valid deductive argument is one in which, given the truth of the premises, the conclusion must also be true. More cautiously, one might ask why an argument that places no definite restrictions on the probability of M should be of any interest. Essays in Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion.
Schellenberg offers several different forms of the argument.
Nevertheless the argument has prompted a great many criticisms. The strict empiricist account of meaning was also charged as meaningless on the grounds that there is no coherent, clear, basic level of experience with which to test propositional claims.
We may say that a miracle is a violation of natural law and appeal to the conception of a violation as a nonrepeatable counterinstance, or we may deny that miracles are violations of natural law since, having supernatural causes, they fall outside the scope of these laws.
The idea of a gardener who is not just invisible but who also cannot be detected by any sensory faculty seemed nonsense. As Michael Levine In relation to scientific accounts of the natural world, such enquiries into causes make abundant sense and are perhaps even essential presuppositions of the natural sciences.
Suppose an extraordinary event occurs, which the apologist would like to attribute to a supernatural cause. It remains possible, though the facts in the case may in principle render it wildly improbable, that the testifier is either a deceiver or himself deceived; and so long as those possibilities exist, there will be logical space for other forms of evidence to bear on the conclusion.
There is not yet anything approaching a comprehensive survey of these responses. One answer would be that a successful confirmatory argument may shift the burden of proof.
The Meaningfulness of Religious Language A significant amount of work on the meaningfulness of religious language was carried out in the medieval period, with major contributions made by Maimonides —Thomas Aquinas —Duns Scotus —and William of Ockham — Clearly, his failure to avail himself of this possibility is inconsistent with his being both omnipotent and wholly good.
If one knows that it is possible that six is the smallest perfect number then one has good reason to believe that. A more sustained objection against virtually all versions of the teleological argument takes issue with the assumption that the cosmos is good or that it is the sort of thing that would be brought about by an intelligent, completely benevolent being.
It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that this criticism represents a victory for apologetic. Considered in Reference to the Claims of Revelation, London: Perennialism vs Constructivism[ edit ] Another debate on this topic is whether all religious cultures share common or core mystical experiences Perennialism or whether these experiences are in some way socially and culturally constructed Constructivism or Contextualism.
Defenders of the cosmological argument still contend that its account of the cosmos has a comprehensive simplicity lacking in alternative views. Rethinking the Ontological Argument. So no perfectly loving God exists from 2 and 3.
It is easy to believe the person who claimed to see water run downhill, but quite difficult to believe that someone saw water run uphill. Testimony to experience the absence of God might be better understood as testimony not to experience God. All which circumstances are requisite to give us a full assurance in the testimony of men.
A solid case for even some examples would lower the probability of the evidential argument, and one could maintain that normal epistemic limitations restrict knowledge in many other examples. The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism.
The event has no cause at all. The unreliability objection, made out in this particular way, seems to have a fairly easy response. Sobel, Jordan Howard,Logic and Theism: Theists employing the teleological argument will draw attention to the order and stability of the cosmos, the emergence of vegetative and animal life, the existence of consciousness, morality, rational agents and the like, in an effort to identify what might plausibly be seen as purposively explicable features of the cosmos.
For a brief discussion of some of the other arguments, see the entry "David Hume: But at the same time all three are essential parts of most theological positions: Indeed, as far as this kind of predictive expansion is concerned, we seem no better off saying that some event came about because God willed it to occur than we would be if we said of it simply that it had no cause, or that it occurred spontaneously.
Hume did not explicitly address the question of whether actually witnessing an apparent miracle would give us good reason to think that a miracle had actually occurred, though it is possible that the principles he invokes in regard to testimony for the miraculous can be applied to the case of a witnessed miracle.
If what one means by a violation of the laws of nature is just an exception to usual processes in the natural world, however, this objection is unwarranted.Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." according to Aristotle, is God, the subject of study in theology.
Today, prompting philosophers like William Alston, John Mackie, Alvin Plantinga. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Philosophy of religion. STUDY. Believed in rational separation of philosopher and subject.
This included socrates, aristotle, and plato. Platonic philosophy. a philosophy that held that the most perfect form of something was the idea of it, not an actual thing.
our religion is not important because it refers to some god: our religion is. John Leslie Mackie (25 August – 12 December ) was an Australian philosopher, originally from Sydney. He made significant contributions to the philosophy of religion, metaphysics, and the philosophy of language, and is perhaps best known for his views on meta-ethics, especially his defence of moral billsimas.com mater: University of Sydney, Oriel College, Oxford.
Locke, John (), A Discourse of Miracles, in Earman, John, Hume's Abject Failure: The Argument Against Miracles, New York: Oxford University Press Mackie.
J.L. (), The Miracle of Theism: Arguments for and against the Existence of. Philosophy of Religion.
Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion. It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents.Download